Erwida Maulia , The Jakarta Post , Jakarta | Sat, 12/06/2008 8:07 AM | Headlines
A global ranking on education equity recently released by UNESCO has placed Indonesia 71st out of 129 countries surveyed, down from 62nd in 2007 and 58th in 2006.
In its 2009 Education for All (EFA) Global Monitoring Report launched last week in Geneva, UNESCO placed Kazakhstan on top, followed by Japan, Germany, Norway and the UK. Last year’s report saw Norway in first place, with the UK topping the list in 2006.
Southeast Asian nations Brunei Darussalam and Malaysia are on a list of 56 countries with a high EFA Development Index (EDI); while Indonesia, Myanmar and the Philippines are among 44 countries with a medium EDI. Cambodia and Laos are included in the bottom 29 countries with a low EDI.
Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam were not included in the report, along with the United States and Australia.
The annual Global Monitoring Report, available at www.unesco.org, is a means of monitoring countries’ progress toward achieving six EFA goals, set in 2000, by 2015.
The EDI is a composite that uses four of the goals, excluding the first and third, selected on the basis of data availability. The universal primary education goal is measured using the indicator of total primary net enrollment (NER) — the percentage of primary school-aged children who are enrolled in either primary or secondary school; while the quality of education goal is measured using the proxy indicator of the survival rate to fifth grade.
The EDI can vary from 0 to 100 percent, or 0 to 1 when expressed as a ratio. The closer a country’s EDI value is to the maximum, the greater the extent of its overall EFA achievement and the nearer the country is to the EFA goal as a whole.
Indonesia’s EDI dropped to 0.925 from 0.935 last year and 0.938 the year before. Its total primary NER score was 0.984, indicating 98 percent of its primary school-aged children are enrolled in either primary of secondary school. The adult literacy rate was 0.910, meaning 9 percent of Indonesia’s adults are still illiterate.
Hamid Muhammad, the National Education Ministry’s director general for non-formal and informal education, responsible for ensuring Indonesia achieves the six EFA goals by 2015, told The Jakarta Post Friday that Indonesia could have had a better EDI and ranking if UNESCO had used data from the last two years for its report, and not data from the school year ending in 2006.
Hamid said EFA goals for Indonesia meant the country, among others, should have an NER of 95 percent, gross junior high school enrollment rate of 95 percent and adult literacy rate of 95 percent.
Indonesia has attained these first two goals, with both the NER and junior high enrollment rate exceeding 95 percent.
“Our illiteracy rate now stands at 5.7 percent, so in fact we only need to cut 1 percent more from the rate to reach the EFA goals,” Hamid said.
Six EFA goals
1. Expanding early childhood care and education
2. Providing free and compulsory primary education for all
3. Promoting learning and life skills for young people and adults
4. Increasing the adult literacy rate by 50 percent
5. Achieving gender equality by 2015
6. Improving the quality of education
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